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Analysis: Which Russian Electronic Warfare Systems Jam US Excalibur & HIMARS Ammunition in Ukraine.

According to information from Ukrainian soldiers, Russian forces can jam satellite guidance ammunition such as Excalibur artillery shells and HIMARS systems. Russia has deployed in Ukraine the R-330Zh Zhitel in Ukraine, capable of detecting, tracking, and jamming the Inmarsat and Iridium satellite communications and GSM-1900 cellphones and also acting against GPS navigation systems utilizing the NAVSTAR satellites.
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Three Russian Electronic Warfare Systems, the R-330Zh Zhitel, Krasukha-4, and the Tirada-2, can jam GPS-guided ammunition. (Picture source Russian MoD and Social Networks)

According to previous information from six months ago, the Ukrainians reported the issue, and Washington stopped delivering Excalibur shells. A senior US official, speaking on the condition of anonymity, said the Pentagon anticipated that certain precision-guided weapons would be defeated by Russian electronic warfare and collaborated with Ukraine to overcome this.

Regarding HIMARS, the article states that during the first year of operation, they successfully destroyed command stations and warehouses containing Russian weaponry; however, in the second year, Russian electronic warfare began to jam them.

Electronic warfare (EW) has become a pivotal element in the current conflict in Ukraine, significantly shaping the battlefield dynamics. Russian forces have effectively leveraged EW to disrupt Ukrainian military communications, severely hampering their command and control capabilities. By interfering with radio frequencies and communications networks, Russian EW operations create confusion and delay Ukrainian military responses, undermining their ability to coordinate and execute operations efficiently. This strategic disruption is crucial in modern warfare, where rapid and reliable communication is essential for effective military action.

Additionally, EW enables Russian forces to gather critical intelligence by intercepting and analyzing Ukrainian communications. This capability provides insights into Ukrainian troop movements, strategies, and positions, allowing Russian forces to anticipate and counter Ukrainian operations more effectively. Furthermore, EW is employed in counter-drone operations, detecting, jamming, and disabling Ukrainian drones that are vital for reconnaissance and targeting. By neutralizing these drones, Russian forces diminish the Ukrainian military's surveillance and precision strike capabilities. Overall, electronic warfare enhances the tactical advantage of Russian forces by disrupting Ukrainian operations and enhancing their own situational awareness and operational security.

Our analysis shows three Russian Electronic Warfare Systems, the R-330Zh Zhitel, Krasukha-4, and the Tirada-2, can jam GPS-guided ammunition.

Russian electronic warfare (EW) systems have shown significant capabilities in jamming advanced U.S.-supplied munitions such as the Excalibur guided artillery shell and HIMARS missiles. Notable systems involved in these efforts include:

R-330Zh Zhitel: This mobile EW system can jam GPS signals across a broad range of frequencies (100 MHz to 2 GHz). It has been particularly effective against GPS-guided munitions like Excalibur and HIMARS, disrupting their targeting systems and causing them to miss their intended targets. The Zhitel system can generate strong jamming signals within a 30 km radius, making it a formidable countermeasure against satellite-guided weapons.

The R-330Zh Zhitel is a Russian electronic warfare system designed to detect, locate, and jam satellite and radio communications. (Picture source Social Network)

Krasukha-4: Another Russian-made advanced EW system, the Krasukha-4, targets X-band and Ku-band radars, which are used by various aerial and missile systems. Its ability to interfere with radar signals makes it an effective tool in disrupting the targeting and guidance of precision munitions.

The Krasukha-4 is a Russian mobile electronic warfare system designed to jam airborne radar and satellite-based systems. (Picture source Social Network)

The Tirada-2 is a Russian electronic warfare system designed to disrupt and jam satellite communications. (Picture source Russian MoD)

Tirada-2: This system is designed specifically to jam satellite communications, including those used by GPS-guided munitions. By targeting the communication links between satellites and ground-based receivers, the Tirada-2 can effectively neutralize the guidance systems of weapons like the HIMARS.

These Russian EW (Electronic Warfare) systems have forced the U.S. and Ukraine to continuously update and adapt their software and operational tactics to mitigate the jamming effects. Despite these efforts, the effectiveness of precision-guided munitions has been notably reduced, highlighting the evolving challenge posed by Russian electronic warfare capabilities.

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